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 ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................

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Sandeep Sunstar

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PostSubject: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Sun Feb 23, 2014 5:29 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Thu Feb 27, 2014 8:50 pm

TerViva Bioenergy works to bring pongamia oil to feedstock market
By Bryan Sims | February 03, 2012

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A pongamia field in coastal Texas
Photo: TerViva Bioenergy

As research continues to mount in an effort to find low-cost breeding, cultivation and harvesting methods of nonfood-based oil bearing crops such as jatropha, castor, moringa and algae for biodiesel production, Calif.-based TerViva Bioenergy Inc. is focused on the development and commercialization of a legume tree native to Australia and India—Pongamia pinnata—which, according to President and CEO Naveen Sikka, holds equal if not superior potential as a viable biodiesel feedstock in the U.S.

It wasn’t until he attended University of California-Berkeley in late 2008 through 2009 working toward a master’s degree in energy and finance that, together with his friends who would eventually co-create TerViva Bioenergy, Sikka was interested in pongamia and the promise it holds as an ideally suited feedstock for biodiesel.

“I think what we liked about it, after having visited some acreage in India and Australia, was that we felt it could be a truly economical and scalable crop in the U.S.,” Sikka told Biodiesel Magazine. “You hear a lot about jatropha and others, but they’re not really being cultivated here in the U.S. Because it’s a tree crop, it can be cultivated like a tree crop.”

According to Sikka, TerViva has developed special varieties of pongamia trees that produce pods that contain seeds. They typically contain between 30 to 40 percent oil, which consist of nearly 50 percent of oleic acid. The pods can be harvested via existing mechanical shaking equipment such as those employed in the nut industries and the oil can be extracted using existing crushing equipment with no modifications. After the oil is extracted, degummed and refined, it can then be shipped to biodiesel producers.

“It’s like a pistachio tree for the biodiesel industry,” Sikka said. “At the end of the day, that oil, those seeds, they go right into existing equipment. We’re going to work with the existing [biodiesel] industry, which we think have done things right.”

Pongamia trees, according to Sikka, are noninvasive and highly resistant to heat (more than 110 degrees Fahrenheit), drought and saline soils. It’s also tolerant to cold temperatures—which is a problem for jatropha—and it’s a nitrogen fixer, meaning the tree doesn’t require nitrogen fertilizers. In fact, the trees effectively replenish nitrogen in the soil, thereby rehabilitating distressed, marginal land. Pongamia requires between four and five years of growth before the tree is mature enough to be commercially harvested. It is, however, a fast-growing tree and life can extend far beyond 50 years.

TerViva has established test plot operations for cultivating and harvesting its elite lines of pongamia trees, 30,000 trees worth (about 200 acres), in south Texas in an effort that Sikka hopes will demonstrate and communicate to area farmers the benefits of pongamia as a valuable oilseed crop that can positively contribute to their overall operations. Sikka added the company intends to add trial acreage already established in Hawaii, as well as establish test plots on distressed citrus land in Florida.

“The biggest thing we learned about biofuels is that when you go to a farmer and you propose a biofuel crop, they don’t evaluate that biofuel crop in comparison to other biofuel crops,” Sikka said. “They evaluate it in comparison to anything they can do with their land. It’s not like a row crop like camelina, but if you’re patient, it works and it’s got a great benefit.”

Genetics in the wild from which TerViva is cultivating, according to Sikka, can produce as much as 2,000 gallons of oil per acre from the pongamia tree under ideal conditions.

“We don’t quote that much because we think when you plant it at a sufficiently dense scale and you put it into some tough conditions, you’re probably looking at more like 400 to 500 gallons of oil per acre,” Sikka said. “It’s a very good number compared to camelina or soy, but it’s also a different kind of organism.”

Sikka continued, “There’s millions of acres on which pongamia could be farmed in the U.S. If we run the fantasy tape and we say, ‘Ok, 10 barrels or 500 gallons of oil per acre multiplied by 100,000 put in over a decade, that equates to a lot of pongamia seed oil potential that could contribute as feedstock for the biodiesel industry.’”

Understanding the roots from which the biodiesel industry was built over the years, to where it is today, Sikka said he and his company look to introduce pongamia into the industry with ease and optimism.

“We had a lot of respect coming into this thing for the existing biodiesel community,” Sikka said.


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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Feb 28, 2014 7:40 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Feb 28, 2014 7:41 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Feb 28, 2014 7:45 pm

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Where hope grows on Pongamia trees
Bangalore, Feb 22, 2014, DHNS:

Success stories

It was a year of severe drought. People in Kasavanahalli in Chitradurga were struggling for drinking water. Farmers here had nothing much to look forward to as the fields had gone barren. A district official gave them the suggestion to plant pongamia (honge) saplings.

Nine years on, the villagers have begun to appreciate the potential of the biofuel plant. Today, they have planted more than two lakh saplings of pongamia. They have even begun exporting its seeds for biofuel production.

At a national conference on ‘Accelerating Biofuel Programmes in India’ flagged off here on Saturday, farmers from several villages shared their success stories in cultivating honge. Kasavanahalli Ramesh, a farmer from Kasavanahalli, has been a beneficiary of this change. Now, even if there is scanty rainfall, at least the land is not parched as the honge trees ensure enough shade. When all other crops fail to give them returns, they have honge to fall back on. Ramesh exports the honge seeds to Israel.

“When we started, we were given Rs 10 to plant a sapling. Earlier, we used to cut these trees without knowing their value.”



In a similar case in Belgaum, Shivaji Kaganikar and his friends have planted nearly 30,000 to 40,000 saplings in and around three villages. The villagers are now looking forward for better support from the State government so that they can enhance their productivity and start extracting honge oil for self-sustenance in energy.

“We hope that the government soon gives us equipment to generate the oil which can be used to run vehicles and other machinery,” says Kaganikar.

The Karnataka State Biofuel Development Board (KSBDB) had organised the conference, in co-ordination with the Union Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. On the occasion, the Board also launched its new bilingual website.

Addressing the gathering, G V Krishna Rau, the additional chief secretary, called for a coherent biofuel policy. “It is not just about activism. It is also about economy,” he said, encouraging those involved to make biofuel production economically viable.

New biofuel park this year

A new biofuel park would come up at Challakere in Chitradurga district this year, A K Monnappa, managing director of KSBDB, said. There are three biofuel parks at present. One in Hassan, one in Hatti Gold Mines and the other in Dharwad.

Speaking about the market for biofuel, he said the market for honge seeds had grown a lot. While earlier, they used to get Rs two per kg of seeds, now the price has gone up to Rs 18 per kg.

Y B Ramakrishna, former executive chairman of KSBDB, told the audience that Karnataka had good economic programmes to support biofuel, but they need to be scaled up. “With slight alterations, the Karnataka model can be replicated at the national level,” he said.  Speaking to reporters on the sidelines of the programme, Ramakrishna said the biofuel programme had now passed the stages of scepticism and opposition and it was time for it to scale new heights.

Ramakrishna said the Board could do with some more funding. Last year, Rs 9.5 crore was allotted to the Board, but the amount announced was eventually not allocated completely. About Rs 8 crore to Rs 10 crore would be sufficient for the Board, he said, adding that the government departments involved needed to take a more active approach.
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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:07 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:24 pm

New Biofuel Crop: Pongamia Trees

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Pongamia are one of the few leguminous trees that produce an oilseed.  The seeds produced by Pongamia are high in oil content, and the composition of the oil makes it well suited for conversion to liquid fuels, basic chemicals, or high-value molecules. In addition to Pongamia’s ability to obtain nitrogen from the atmosphere, Pongamia have shown drought and saline tolerance greater than many common agricultural crops that make them an ideal choice for the Florida climate.



Our trees are special varieties of Pongamia pinnata, a fast-growing, hardy tree that is native to India and grows all over the world in sub-tropical climates. Pongamia grows robustly on dry, marginal land using its deep tap root and produces a large amount of oilseeds that can be mechanically harvested and processed using existing agriculture equipment. The tree is classified as non-invasive by the USDA.

These trees yield 3 high-valued products: (1) seed vegetable oil that is well suited for conversion in to liquid fuels such as biodiesel and specialty chemicals (2) high-protein de-oiled seed cake suitable for animal feed (3) pods composed of biomass suitable for bio-power production.

Pongamia is a highly profitable, “drop-in” crop for landowners with marginal and stressed lands.

Pongamia trees reach adult height in 4 or 5 years and start bearing seeds at 4 to 7 years.  The tree  produce 50 to 100 lbs of seed per tree. Assuming 200 trees per acre, and 25% oil per pound the seeds can yield up to 600 gallons of Honge oil per acre.


Pongamia normally grows between 45 to 50 feet in height at maturity and is harvested annually between the months of January and March. The Pongamia is low-maintenance, pest resistant and cold tolerant crop with a lifespan ranging from 40 to 70 years.

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Shown above: Pongamia seed pods and nuts
.

The  purple, pink, and white flower tree blossoms produce a pod containing a single nut  similar to an almond tree profile.  The seeds are non-edible.



The Pongamia Pinnata,  is native to Australia and India have long been used for lamp oil, soap, leather tanning, lubricants, erosion control, cattle feed and tribal medicinal remedies.   In recent years Pongamia have become a popular ornamental tree in the Miami, Fla area.  The canopy and expansive root structure offer an efficient solution for shade, windbreak and erosion applications.


The Pongamia is suitable for introduction on marginal lands or as a replacement crop for areas afflicted by citrus greening or canker.   Pongamia restores nitrogen to rehabilitate soil which makes it a good choice for land reclamation projects.
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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:33 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Sat Mar 01, 2014 12:56 pm

THIS tree deserves a hug. It has rescued Indian villagers from starvation and helped fight malaria. But it's not resting on its laurels.

The Pongamia Pinnata tree is now being investigated as a way to help Australia's efforts to avert climate change, by providing a low-cost, non-polluting alternative to greenhouse gas-emitting fuels.

UN advisers on climate change have warned that greenhouse gas emissions must peak within eight years if a global temperature rise is to stay within a manageable level.

Meanwhile energy experts see global oil output reaching a peak in the near future.

The hunt for alternative fuels has begun, but it is a minefield where many solutions have dire side-effects.

While a food-for-fuel debate is raging over the use of edible plants to produce biofuels, scientists say a major untapped biodiesel source, the seed oil of the Pongamia Pinnata tree, an inedible crop, is worry-free.

A native of southeast Asia, the tree has proliferated in Brisbane because of its tenacity in tough conditions and its ability to provide shade.

The University of Queensland ARC Centre of Excellence for Integrative Legume Research, or CILR, is a world-renowned research network of plant scientists.

Centre director Professor Peter Gresshoff's team has begun work to establish the tree as a resource for Australia's nascent biofuels industry.

And it could have a two-fold environmental benefit.

The tree can live for 100 years, all the time sucking in carbon dioxide while producing oil that can displace carbon-belching fossil fuel.

Professor Gresshoff says its hardiness means it will grow on land not fit for food crops, and nitrate fertilisers are not essential during its growth.

Production of palm oil or canola for biodiesel and corn or sugarcane for the bioethanol industry are big users of nitrogen fertiliser which generates greenhouse gases.

Professor Gresshoff says Australia's diesel requirement is 18 billion litres a year.

Pongamia-derived biodiesel could meet 20 per cent of this demand – a practical initial target – with about 7000 square kilometres of plantations.

Meeting 100 per cent would require 35,000 square kilometres.

Australia has 1-2 million square kilometres of unused marginal land in which the tree could thrive.

During a speech last year Professor Gresshoff said legume research had potential relevance for the renewable energy field.

The speech led George Muirhead, a Sunshine Coast co-founder of Pacific Renewable Energy, to contact Professor Gresshoff and suggest he look at the potential of the Pongamia tree.

Mr Muirhead had seen the tree's seed oil put to work by an academic who was searching for affordable fuels for villagers in Bangalore.

A boyhood memory of his mother using Pongamia for lamp oil led the Indian academic to start a village trial in which the oil was used to power a generator and cold room to allow long-term food storage for the first time.

The Pongamia project is now powering up in Queensland.

CILR has now agreed to a $1 million research contract with Pacific Renewable Energy.

Secondly, PRE is set to partner CILR and put in another $1 million as part of a Queensland Government SmartState fund.

"Momentum is really starting to build. We're getting a proper financial basis for research and now we have to make sure we lay a solid basis for a biodiesel industry in Australia to replace crude oil," Professor Gresshoff said.

Research aims to isolate elite varieties of the plant.

Professor Gresshoff said 12ha of Pongamia planted near Caboolture should, in two or three years, give insight into how its oil handles.

The tree is fast growing but needs to be five or six for a proper harvest using a mechanical shaker.

Mr Muirhead said a key attraction of Pongamia was its potential as a biofuel feedstock that can be grown in extreme terrain, such as disused mine sites.

"We think there's great potential to commercialise when we've got the elite genotype. We would focus on areas considered degraded land and that's potentially a vast area," he says.

As an example, Comalco has ex-bauxite-mine land near Weipa that has to be regenerated before being handed back to the local Aboriginal community.

"Planting Pongamia for biodiesel there would create a residual income and workplace for the indigenous community and potentially give the likes of Comalco the opportunity to tackle their greenhouse gas emissions," Mr Muirhead said.

Mining firms could use the biodiesel in fleet machines and for remote power generation.

Graziers could use a Pongamia byproduct as a cattle feed supplement.

Mr Muirhead says a major limitation for the remote north livestock industry is the protein loss from grass during the dry season.

The leftover portion of Pongamia seeds contains up to 30 per cent protein and can be fed to cattle, sheep and poultry.

CILR researchers are "finger-printing" some of the 1000 identified Pongamia trees planted years ago on Brisbane's footpaths.

Fortitude Valley's Robertson Street is lined with Pongamia that have just been in bloom, bearing white and pink wisteria-like flowers.\

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Sun Mar 02, 2014 10:44 am

Oil and Fuel from Jatropha and Pongamia Trees: Interview with Sreenivas Ghatty, Founder CEO, Tree Oils India Ltd., Melbourne -- by Willi Paul

Oil and Fuel from Jatropha and Pongamia Trees: Interview with Sreenivas Ghatty, Founder CEO, Tree Oils India Ltd., Melbourne -- by Willi Paul

“The Company intends to generate wealth out of the waste lands in sustainable and ethical manner. It proposes to supply eco-friendly fuel to the transport sector and organic manure to the farm sector. India imports 72 percent of crude oil for meeting domestic needs and the import bill for crude oil is currently around $14 billion per year. With the increased production and use of Biodiesel, the country will gradually reduce its dependence on huge imports of crude fossil oil and become self-sufficient in auto fuel in 20 years. The Company expects that its pioneering efforts would contribute to proliferation of Non-edible oil tree plantations and Biodiesel plants, resulting in reduction of import bill on account of fossil fuels and the consequent pollution. The integrated and self reliant approach adopted by the company, encompassing, all the activities, starting from Nursery to distribution of Biodiesel and effective utilization of Byproducts, such as Oil Cake and Glycerin would make it successful.”

What ethical issues surround Tree Oils India Limited work?

  • In a hungry world, we need to produce more food and fuel.


  • Low cost and low input farming should reduce the risks and losses.


  • Value addition at the farm level should reduce the share of middlemen.


  • Regional and remote areas should become self sufficient in energy.


  • Biodiversity and ecological balance should lead to sustainable agriculture.



Are your Rural Energy Centres strictly private businesses?

Rural Energy Centres are socially responsible enterprises. They can be owned and managed by individuals, Self Help Groups, NGOs, Cooperatives and companies, privately or under public-private partnership or community ownership.

Can you explain the life cycle of the trees? What is harvested? When? Is there compost?

The estimated economic life of Jatropha is 50 years. It starts flowering after one year and may mature in 3 to 5 years, depending upon the agro climatic conditions. The seeds are harvested four or five times in a year, during monsoon period. Leaves are shed after the rainy season and they along with the pruned branches could be used for composting.

The estimated economic life of Pongamia is 100 years. It starts flowering after three to five years and may mature after 7 to 10 years, depending upon the genetic variation. The seeds are harvested once in a year, before summer. It is ever green tree and the pruned branches along with leaves before the rainy season could be used as green manure or for composting.

What is the local, regional and state government involvement, if any?

As of now, they are not involved. But, we expect the local government to provide community lands, state and federal governments to provide tax incentives, grants, subsidies and infrastructure such as roads.

Who are your laborers who work the plantations? Is there a union representing these workers?

The laborers are local unemployed people, who were migrating to nearby towns and cities earlier. There is no union representing them.

Is the price for marginal land now increasing as a result of your work with “oil from trees?”

Yes, it is increasing. Not only the price, but also the fertility, productivity and water retention capacity are on the increase.

How does the Integrated Sustainable Farm (TOIL) plan change as you go from country to country? Please give us examples.
  • TOIL focuses on local agro climatic, social and economic conditions and changes the plan to suit them.

  • In India, where land holdings are fragmented, we will go for out grower schemes and encourage the farmers to grow food crops and oil bearing trees with our technical and buy back support.

  • In Tanzania, our associate procured large tracts of uncultivated land to grow oil bearing trees and energy crops and provide local employment.

  • In Solomon Islands, our associate worked to revive the coconut plantation and mix it with our oil bearing trees, thus reviving the local econ
omy.

What are the outstanding scientific issues that you need to solve?

Developing high quality genetic material that can perform in different agro climatic conditions along with the agronomic practices that minimize the risks and maximize the returns. We are domesticating wild species and need to address known unknowns and unknown unknowns.
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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Sun Mar 02, 2014 10:45 am

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Sun Mar 02, 2014 12:36 pm

KARANJA PLANT

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Pongamia is one of the most suitable species found in india. Due to its various favourable dimensions like hardy nature, high oil recovery and quality of oil, we can supply quality pongamia pinata seeds as per the clients' demands. Pongamia is often planted in home steads as a shade or ornamental tree and in avenue plantings along roadsides and canals. It is a preferred species for controlling soil erosion and binding sand dunes because of its dense network of lateral roots. Its root, bark, leaf, sap, and flower also have medicinal properties. Applications: • Crushed seeds and leaves have antiseptic properties and contains pongam oil, non-edible oil. • Used for lubrication and indigenous medicine. • Largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil commercially known as ‘karanja oil’ which is well organised for its medicinal properties. • Its oil is used as fuel for cooking and is also used as a water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries. • It is also effective in enhancing the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies. • The pongamia cake is used as a poultry feed. • Its dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored grains.

KARANJA Honge

Botanical Name : Pongamia glabra
Sanskrit Name: Karanja
English Name : Pongam Oil Tree, Indian Beech
Family : Fabaceae
Part used: Roots, Leaf, Flower, Seed, Fruit



INTRODUCTION:

It is a deciduous tree that grows to about 15-25 meters in height with a large canopy that spreads equally wide. The leaves are a soft, shiny burgundy in early summer and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses. Small clusters of white, purple, and pink flowers blossom on their branches throughout the year, maturing into brown seed pods. The tree is well suited to intense heat and sunlight and its dense network of lateral roots and its thick, long taproot make it drought tolerant.

Pongamia is one of the most suitable species found in india. Due to its various favourable dimensions like hardy nature, high oil recovery and quality of oil, we can supply quality pongamia pinata seeds as per the clients' demands. Pongamia is often planted in home steads as a shade or ornamental tree and in avenue plantings along roadsides and canals. It is a preferred species for controlling soil erosion and binding sand dunes because of its dense network of lateral roots. Its root, bark, leaf, sap, and flower also have medicinal properties.

Ecology:

Native to humid and subtropical environments, pongam thrives in areas having an annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 2500 mm. In its natural habitat, the maximum temperature ranges from 27 to 38oC and the minimum 1 to16oC. Mature trees can withstand water logging and slight frost. This specie grows to elevations of 1200 meters, but in the Himalayan foothills is not found above 600 meters.

Pongam can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clay. It does not do well on dry sands. It is highly tolerant of salinity. It is common along waterways or seashores, with its roots in fresh or salt water. Highest growth rates are observed on well drained soils with assured moisture. Natural reproduction is profuse by seed and common by root suckers.

Distribution:

The natural distribution of pongam is along coasts and river banks in India and Burma. Native to the Asian subcontinent, this species has been introduced to humid tropical lowlands in Malaysia, Australia, the Seychelles, the United States and Indonesia

Cultivation practices

Planting of seedlings can be done with the onset of rains in May-June or Sept-October. Seed viability is high, but the hard seed coat posses dormancy. To hasten germination seeds are to be dipped in concentrated sulfuric acid for four minutes and then washed or put in hot water at 80ºC for four minutes. The seeds should be sundried afterwards for about one hour before sowing.

A seed rate of 3-4 kg/ha is recommended. Sowing is preferably done during February-March in a nursery or in polythene bags or in situ at 2-3 cm depth. Seedlings (1.5 to 3 months old with 6-8 leaves) are planted in the main field. A spacing of 1 x 0.1 m is recommended for a pure crop of fodder, 1.5 x 0.2 m for planting in boundaries and borders of coconut gardens and 2 x 0.2 m when raised along boundaries.

Planting Material

Methods of propagation for raising plantation are :

(i) Direct sowing of seeds; (ii) Bag Plantation; (iii) Naked seedlings collected from existing plantation regeneration.

Spacing adopted

The most common spacing adopted are 1.27m x 1.27m (50” x 50”) (i.e. 6200 plants/ha); 2m x 2m (2500 Pl/ha); 3 x 1.5m (2222 plants/ha). However, the recommended spacing is 1.5m x 1.5m (4445 Pl/ha). Inter cultivation may not be possible from second year onwards.

Weeding / Soil working

Two weedings / soil working are required per year for the first 3 years of sowing / planting.

Pests and diseases

Subabul generally has been free of serious insect & diseases, but is susceptible to jumping plant lice (psyllids) which have caused serious defoliation and mortality in some areas. Some varieties are susceptible to gummosis, which is most likely caused by Fusarium or Phytophtora species. Leaf spot fungus also can cause defoliation under wet conditions.

Applications:
Crushed seeds and leaves have antiseptic properties and contains pongam oil, non-edible oil.
Used for lubrication and indigenous medicine.
Largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil commercially known as ‘karanja oil’ which is well organised for its medicinal properties.
Its oil is used as fuel for cooking and is also used as a water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries.
It is also effective in enhancing the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies.
The pongamia cake is used as a poultry feed.
Its dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored grains.

Uses:

The pongamia tree is cultivated for two purposes:

(1) As an ornamental in gardens and along avenues and roadsides, for its fragrant Wisteria-like flowers

(2) As a host plant for lac insects.

It is appreciated as an ornamental throughout coastal India and all of Polynesia. Well-decomposed flowers are used by gardeners as compost for plants requiring rich nutrients. In the Philippines the bark is used for making strings and ropes. The bark also yields a black gum that is used to treat wounds caused by poisonous fish. In wet areas of the tropics the leaves serve as green manure and as fodder. The black malodorous roots contain a potent fish-stupefying principle. In primitive areas of Malaysia and India root extracts are applied to abscesses; other plant parts, especially crushed seeds and leaves are regarded as having antiseptic properties. The seeds contain pongam oil, a bitter, red brown, thick, non-drying, nonedible oil, 27–36% by weight, which is used for tanning leather, soap, as a liniment to treat scabies, herpes, and rheumatism and as an illuminating oil (Burkill, 1966). Also used for lubrication and indigenous medicine.

Pongam oil showed inhibitory effects on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pulilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas mangiferae, Salmonella typhi, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Xanthomonas campestris, but did not inhibit Shigella sp. (Chaurasia and Jain, 1978). The oil has a high content of triglycerides, and its disagreeable taste and odor are due to bitter flavonoid constituents, pongamiin and karanjin. The wood is yellowish white, coarse, hard, and beautifully grained, but is not durable. Use of the wood is limited to cabinetmaking, cart wheels, posts, and fuel (Allen and Allen, 1981). Both the oil and residues are toxic. Still the presscake is described as a "useful poultry feed." Seeds are used to poison fish. Still it is recommended as a shade tree for pastures and windbreak for tea. The leaves are said to be a valuable lactagogue fodder, especially in arid regions. It is sometimes intercropped with pasture, the pasture grasses said to grow well in its shade (NAS, 1980a). Dried pongam leaves are used in stored grains to repel insects. Leaves often plowed green manure, thought to reduce nematode infestations. Its into ground as spreading roots make it valuable for checking erosion and stabilizing dunes. Twigs are used as a chewstick for cleaning the teeth. The ash of the wood is used in dyeing.

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Mon Mar 03, 2014 12:12 pm

Bio fuel from Pongamia Pinnata
Posted on April 17, 2010 by kavitha in Jatropha/Biodiesel

Seeds are largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil, commercially known as ‘KARANJAOIL’ well recognized for its medicinal properties and also used in the manufacture of soap.

Pongamia Pinnata locally known as Karanja is a medium sized evergreen tree planted for shade and as ornamental tree in the greater part of the country. It is a drought resistant salt tolerant, nitrogent fixing leguminous tree and to some extent tolerant to slight frost. The seeds are largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil, commercially known as ‘KARANJAOIL’ well recognized for its medicinal properties and also used in the manufacture of soap. Leaves are used as fodder and green manure. The wood of this tree is used as fuel throughout the country and also used for construction, tool handles and agricultural implements.

Uses of Pongamia Pinnata leaves
Leaves are lopped for fodder and also used as green manure. The juice of leaves, stem and roots is considered a remedy for gonorrhoea. Externally the leaves, like the root and seeds, are much used for the treatment of maggot infested ulcers. The leaves contain 17.6% of crude protein, 2.2% of calcium and 0.2% of phosphorus.

Flowers
Its flowers are useful in diabetes.

Wood
The wood is yellowish grey in colour, heavy, moderately strong, moderately tough, hard, medium course textured and interlocked grained. It is not durable, liable to split and warp but seasons well with care and fairly easy to work, turn and finish. The wood is used for construction, tool handles, turnery articles and agricultural implements.

Fuel
The wood of this tree is a good fuel. It is also commonly used as fuel {calorific value 4839 Kcals per kg) throughout India.

Oil
The seeds are largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil/ commercially known as ‘Karanja oil’, which is well recognised for its medicinal properties. The yield of fruit varies from 9 to 90 kg per tree for different age trees. There is no systematic and organised collection of seeds. Mature seeds consist of 95% kernel and are reported to contain about 27.0% oil. The yield of oil is reported to be about 24.0 to 26.5% if mechanical expellers are used for the recovery of oil from the kernels, but it is only 18 to 22% from village crushers.

The estimated potential of the seeds is about 1.11 lakh tons per year and that of oil is about 0.29 lakh tons and the oil produced is about 0.08 lakh tons.- The crude oil is yellow orange to brown in colour which deepens on standing. It has a bitter taste and disagreeable odour rendering the oil non-edible.

PEST AND DISEASES
The major pest in pongamia pinnata is
* Leaf miners
* Foliage feeders
* Shoot borers
* Fruit and seed borers

Major disease in pongamia pinnata is
* Stem diseases
* Root and butt Rot
* Wood Decay

The oil is of great value in indigenous medicine as a stimulant and for the treatment of skin diseases; it has antiseptic, antiparasitic and cleansing properties. It is used in medicinal preparations for scabies and leucoderma. The furanoflavones present in karanja oil are helpful in enhancing pigmentation of affected skin. Undistilled oil is used in the manufacture of laundry soap and the distilled oil is used in the manufacture of toilet soap. The sulphonated oil is used in leather industry. Karanja oil is also used in manufacture of phenyles, greases, lubricants, massage oils and edpoxy compounds. Villagers use this oil for burning lamps. The oil is also reported to have insecticidal properties. The cake is a good fertilizer and has good soil binding property. It also helps to some extent in controlling soil insects and nematodes.

Package of Practices
Soil : Pongamia is a hardy plant is grows well in all type of soil
Climate : It grow in arid and semi arid climatic conditions and survives in low rainfall conditions (200mm) and tolerates high rainfall upto 1200mm Hot and humid climate is preparable.

Propagation by seed
The seedlings are raised in seed beds or polybags seed is sown in previously prepared pateches or lines at the break of rains.

Vegetative propagation
The cutting measuring about 30cm long and 4 to 5cm in diameter is ideal. The grafts from selected mother plants. Its reduces gestation period.

Spacing : 15’x 15’ 194 plants in one acre of plantation. Pits of 1 ½ x 1 ½ x 1 ½ one to be dug and filled with manure. Transplantation of the plants from nursery is done in June or July when the Mansoon sets

Inter cropping : Inter crop with traditional or medicinal crops can be taken up to cater the immediate need for the farmers. This can be continued for 4 years after plantation.

Cropping : Pongamia pinnata starts bearing when its 4 years in case of grafts and 5 year of seedlings.

Yield :The yield of seed ranges from 9kg to 90kg per tree per acre 2 to 15 tons

Why Biofuel
India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The Development Objectives focus on economic growth, equity and human well being. Energy is a critical input for socio-economic development. The energy strategy of a country aims at efficiency and security and to provide access which being environment friendly and achievement of an optimum mix of primary resources for energy generation.

Fossil fuels will continue to play a dominant role in the energy scenario in our country in the next few decades. However, conventional or fossil fuel resources are limited, non-renewable, polluting and, therefore, need to be used prudently. On the other hand, renewable energy resources are indigenous, non-polluting and virtually inexhaustible. India is endowed with abundant renewable energy resources.

Therefore, their use should be encouraged in every possible way. The crude oil price has been fluctuating in the world market and has increased significantly in the recent past, reaching a level of more than $ 140 per barrel. Such unforeseen escalation of crude oil prices is severely straining various economies the world over, particularly those of the developing countries.

Petro-based oil meets about 95% of the requirement for transportation fuels, and the demand has been steadily rising. Provisional estimates have indicated crude oil consumption in 2007-08 at about 156 million tonnes. The domestic crude oil is able to meet only about 23% of the demand, while the rest is met from imported crude.

CRUDE OIL IMPORTS

Years Imports Amount
Quantity (Tones) (Crores)

2005-06 99409 171702
2006-07 111502 219029
2007-08 121672 272699
2008-09 28155 341887

(Source Petroleum Planning & Analysis cell New Delhi)

Rural development through Pongamia Pinnata
The Pongamia pinnata system is an integrated rural development approaching by planting hedges to protect gardens and fields against roaming animals, the oil from the seeds can be used for soap making and as fuel used for their oil engines, Tractors, powers tillers. In this way the following Pongamia systems covers following main aspects of rural developments.

1. Promotion of women employment (for making local soap production).
2. Increasing agricultural employment in rural areas (Agricultural works, planting, weeding, seed collection, oil expeller works.)
3. Development of Agro based rural industries (oil extraction and Bio diesel production units)
4. Uncultivated lands become cultivated lands (pongamia plantations).
5. Pongamia Plantation created green and clean environment).
6. Soil erosion controlled (due to planting of as Pongamia a hedge plant).
7. Rural area per capital income increases due to Pongamia based Bio diesel production units.
8. Energy supply for lighting and stationery engines in the rural areas.
9. Rural area also contribute to reduce the fossil fuel importing bill.
10. Farmers get assured income through Pongamia plantations. Minimum support prise for seed pricing (MSP).

Conclusion
If the bio-diesel project with Pongamia is implemented in the rural areas on a large scale, makes the rural community prosper and leads to overall self sufficiency in the field of bio-fuel sector. The bio-diesel produced with the seed of Pongamia slowly replace fossil-fuels, Esterfied bio-diesel derived from these plants is environmentally safe, when used in the cars and trucks in terms of emission of CO than the form fossil fuel. Bio diesel blends of 20% with Fossil-diesel produces approximately 70% less pollution. This is also cheaper than the conventional diesel – fuel. Production of bio fuel from plant materials is a major step toward harnessing one of world’s most – prevalent, yet least – utilized renewable energy resources. Eco dreamers have long been hoping for a way to mitigating the global warming.

Through this lot of rural employment and development activities picking up well. India’s energy scenario calls for the effective management of all available resources.

Fuel security is as important as food security.

REFERENCE
Singh, R. 2003 Inaugural speech of Chief Guest in National Seminar on “Energy Challenges of 21” Century: Biofuel a Solution” held at New Delhi, 2nd September 2003 pp 9-12.
Tewari D.N. 2003 Bio-fuel to be the future fuel. Paper presented in the National Seminar on “Energy Challenges of 21st Century: Biofuel a Solution” held at New Delhi, 2nd September 2003 pp 17-20.
Sustainable Bio fuel Policy, Rabo India finance, Confederation of Indian Industry, Biofuel 2008 seminar held at New Delhi, August 22-23, 2008.

K. Suresh Babu. Ph.D., Research Scholar,
T N A U, Coimbatore
Dr. K. Balanaga Gurunathan, Professor, Dept. of MBA, KSR College of Technology, Trichengode

Source : Agriculture & Industry Survey

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Sandeep Sunstar

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Mon Mar 03, 2014 2:18 pm

Pongamia Pinnata

the 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock

----- Prospects for profitable sustainability

Pongamia pinnata is a legume tree with sees containing oils and fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. It is a fast-growing evergreen tree which reaches 40 feet in height and spread, forming a broad, spreading canopy casting moderate shade. The three-inch-long, pinnately compound, glossy green leaves are briefly deciduous, dropping for just a short period of time in early spring but being quickly replaced by new growth. Small clusters of white, purple, and pink flowers blossom on their branches throughout the year, maturing into brown seed pods. The tree is well suited to intense heat and sunlight and its dense network of lateral roots and its thick, long taproot make it drought tolerant. The dense shade it provides slows the evaporation of surface water and its root structures promote nitrogen fixation, which moves nutrients from the air into the soil. Withstanding temperatures slightly below 0°C to 50°C and annual rainfall of 5–25 dm, the tree grows wild on sandy and rocky soils. Although all parts of the plant are toxic and will induce nausea and vomiting if eaten, the fruits and sprouts, along with the seeds, are used in many traditional remedies. Juices from the plant, as well as the oil, are antiseptic and resistant to pests.

Pongamia Pinnata is one of the few nitrogen fixing trees (NFTS) to produce seeds containing 30-42% oil. The seed oil is an important asset of this tree having been used as lamp oil, in soap making, and as a lubricant for thousands of years. It is often planted as an ornamental and shade tree but CJP has honor to establish this untapped resource as alternative source for Bio- Diesel industry of future.

The Pongamia Pinnata trees must be regarded as a sure source of 2nd Generation Biodiesel and the foundation around which a profitable Business plan can be built for its ability to provide large amount of oil and its pure hardiness and stress handling ability. The Pongamia Pinnata is tree that has enough credentials:  a higher recovery and quality of oil than other crops, no direct competition with food crops as it is a non-edible source of fuel, and no direct competition with existing farmland as it can be grown on degraded and marginal land. As a legume it is also able to fix its own nitrogen from the soil, minimizing the need for added fertilizers.

About the Plant

Pongamia Pinnata is an important no edible oilseed tree that grows in a wide range of conditions including semi-arid regions. The leaves are a good source of green manure and being leguminous, they enrich the soil with nitrogen. The seeds contain around 30–40% of oil, which has been identified as a source of bio-fuel and has medicinal value.

Distribution and Habitat

The natural distribution of Pongamia Pinnata is along coasts and river banks in India and Myanmar. Native to the Asian subcontinent, this species has been introduced to humid tropical lowlands in the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia, the Seychelles, the United States and Indonesia. It has also been naturalized in parts of eastern Africa, northern Australia and Florida.

DI has a varied habitat distribution and can grow in a wide range of conditions. Typically it is found in coastal areas, along limestone and rock coral outcrops, along the edges of mangrove forests, tidal streams and rivers. It is hardy and can survive in temperatures from 5 to 50 °C and altitudes from 0 to 1200 m. Due to its deep roots it also has a tolerance for drought and is found in areas with rainfall from 200 to 2500 mm a year. It grows well in both full sun and partial shade and can grow in most soil types. Mature trees can withstand water logging and slight frost.

BOTANY

GENERAL INFORMATION


Scientific name: Pongamia Pinnata

(Syn. Pongamia pinnata; P. glabra)

Family: Leguminosae

USDA hardiness zones: 10B through 11

Origin: native to India

Availability: generally available in many areas within its hardiness range

DESCRIPTION

Height: 35 to 40 feet

Spread: 30 to 40 feet

Ecological Requirements

Widely occurs and commonly planted species because of its wide adaptability. It grows best in fairly moist situations on porous and well drained soil; thriving even on pure sand and black cotton soil.

Pongamia Pinnata grows almost anywhere, even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks.

Climate

Pongamia Pinnata is found in humid and subtropical environments and also found in the tropics and arid zones and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. It is also a drought resistant plants water requirement is extremely low

Biophysical limits

Altitude: 0-1200 m, Mean annual temperature: 27 to 38 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: 200-2500 mm or more.

Pongamia Pinnata can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clay, including Verticals. It does not do well on dry sands. It is highly tolerant of salinity. It is common along waterways or seashores, with its roots in fresh or salt water. Highest growth rates are observed on well drained soils with assured moisture. Natural reproduction is profuse by seed and common by root suckers.

Agronomy

CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY


By their nature Pongamia trees grow vigorously under adverse conditions and can seed prolifically. They are pioneers of degraded and disturbed land, and can proliferate freely in such conditions. The successful introduction and subsequent expansion of plantings of the new oil crop is reliant on the ability to develop simple and reliable methods for the propagation of large numbers of plants. Further, the long-term viability of tree crop species such as Pongamia is dependent on good management practices.

The productive plantation of Pongamia Pinnata needs to be scientifically managed for better growth and production. The growth and yield of the plant could be improved through effective management practices. The enhanced cultivation technology and improved inputs developed by CJP may provide about 4000 liters of biodiesel without displacing food crop and without utilizing prime food land in terms of sustainable farming techniques

The key factors that can influence the oil yield of Pongamia Pinnata are:

Climate
Quality of the soil
RHIZOBIUM INOCULATION
VAM INOCULATION
Irrigation
Weeding
Pruning
Use of fertilizer
Crop density
High-quality grafting stock from superior Genotype
Use of pesticide
Inter-cropping
Harvesting

CJP’s Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Pongamia Pinnata on large scale by studying thousands of Pongamia Pinnata variants, identifying and collecting the best sources of high-quality grafting stock to guarantee a consistently high yield, a stem, or scion, from a tree with a demonstrated capacity to produce many seeds. This not only removed the uncertainty from the yield, it also reduced the time to harvest from eight years to as little as four. Accordingly We at CJP have developed Superior planting material with standard benchmarks as SRIPHL-DI3  with regards to seed yield and oil yield and the enhanced DI Cultivation techniques just to ensure proper and profitable production of THE OIL CROP providing Early fruition and flowering—fourth year onwards 4 years ahead than normal Plants.

CJP’s Researchers have developed standardized techniques for growing Pongamia Pinnata on large scale by studying thousands of Pongamia Pinnata variants, identifying and collecting the best sources of high-quality grafting stock to guarantee a consistently high yield, a stem, or scion, from a tree with a demonstrated capacity to produce many seeds. This not only removed the uncertainty from the yield, it also reduced the time to harvest from eight years to as little as four. Accordingly We at CJP have developed Superior planting material with standard benchmarks as SRIPHL-DI3  with regards to seed yield and oil yield and the enhanced DI Cultivation techniques just to ensure proper and profitable production of THE OIL CROP providing Early fruition and flowering—fourth year onwards 4 years ahead than normal Plants.

PONGAMIA Cultivation Technology” is available at an affordable Price

Pongamia Crop Information Growing & Care Instruction Manual and Monitoring & management system


The planting, looking after and harvesting plants is an important factor and it requires a lot of knowledge, skill and techniques viz: the best planting season to make the plant early matured, then an amount of seeds to be planted, an irrigation &  fertilization method, a control method of weeds , investigate quality, yield, and degree of occurrence of several troubles .

As all biological organisms require care and attention, the need to draw Growing Instructions was being felt by all concerned

Therefore keeping in view Various concerns and problems of a new Grower; CJP being “The Centre of Excellence” has designed Pongamia Growing & Care Instructions Manual with Monitoring & Management System Diary on the basis of our own tried, tested, developed and experienced Plant Propagation and Cultivation Technologies and Practices to help you grow a Failsafe Pongamia Fuel Farm

The Pongamia Growing & Care Instructions manual provides basic guidance for the project developers to help ensure successful Pongamia planting projects.

Proper planning, planting and maintenance are the key for growing flourishing plants. Simply putting a plant in the ground is not enough. Careful thought must be given to the purpose of the planting, location of the planting and how the Pongamia will be cared for once they are in the ground.

A properly planted and maintained plant will grow faster and live longer than one that is incorrectly planted. This booklet is organized as a step-by-step checklist of fundamentals to help you with your Pongamia planting project

We have sincerely tried to put all steps in nutshell and hope it will be a useful tool in growing your Biodiesel Plantation

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Mon Mar 03, 2014 4:28 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Apr 04, 2014 6:24 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Apr 04, 2014 6:24 pm

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PostSubject: Re: ಹೊಂಗೆಮರ ....... Pongamia trees................   Fri Apr 04, 2014 8:53 pm

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