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 Varjibkai (manila tamrid)

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Sandeep Sunstar

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PostSubject: Re: Varjibkai (manila tamrid)   Mon Feb 17, 2014 5:25 pm

All About the Manila Tamarind

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Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce)
Description and recommendationsTablesReferencesImage credits


Common names


Manila tamarind, blackbead, camachile, guayamochil, Madras thorn, sweet inga, pois sucré, tamarin de Manille, opiuma, guamúchil, huamúchil, madre de flecha

Species

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. [Fabaceae]

Synonyms

Mimosa dulcis Roxb.
Related feed(s)

Description

Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.) is a small to medium-sized semi-evergreen leguminous tree, 5 to 20 m high (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011). Manila tamarind is a fast growing tree that may reach a height of 10 m in 5-6 years in favourable conditions (Duke, 1983). Manila tamarind has a short, stout, greyish trunk (30-100 cm in diameter) that bears low irregular branches and forms a broad crown (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011). The leaves are paripinnate with 4 leaflets (2.0-3.5 cm long x 1.0-1.5 cm wide). Small thorns (2.0-15.0 mm long) are inserted on each side of the leaf pedicels, though some varieties are thornless (FAO, 2011). While tree appears evergreen, the leaflets are deciduous and shed in succession. The inflorescences are axillary panicles which bear spherical glomerules (1 cm in diameter) of small, white-greenish, slightly flagrant flowers. Fruits are greenish-brown to red-pinkish, indehiscent pods. Pods are rather thin, 10-15 cm long x 1-2 cm wide, and set in a spiral of 1 to 3 whorls. The pods contain 10 seeds. The seeds are flattened, black and shiny (1 cm in diameter) (FAO, 2011).

Manila tamarind is a multipurpose tree. Its pods are edible and contain a thick sweetish acidic pulp. They can be eaten raw or processed into a soft drink similar to lemonade. Oil can be extracted from the seeds and is used for cooking or for making soaps (FAO, 2011).

Manila tamarind oil meal, pods and leaves are useful livestock feeds. The by-product of oil extraction is a protein-rich meal (30% protein) that can be fed to animals. Pods are also relished by all classes of livestock and Manila tamarind leaves can stand heavy browsing. It is commonly browsed by horses, cattle, goats and sheep (NAS, 1980). In some places of Latin America, Manila tamarind is one of the most important browse species that are primarily used as a fodder during the dry season (FAO, 2011; Le Houérou, 1980).

Manila tamarind provides valuable hardwood timber for construction, paneling, boxes and posts but should not be used for fuel since it is very smoky. The tree is planted for shade, shelter, thorny hedges and as an ornamental (Ecocrop, 2011).

Distribution

Manila tamarind originated from a large Central American area, going from Southern California to Colombia and Venezuela. It was introduced to Indonesia and the Philippines by the Portuguese and the Spanish (Duke, 1983) and is also found in Malaysia and Thailand (Sunarjono et al., 1991). It was successfully planted in the South Sahelian and North Sudanian ecozones, but not over large acreages (FAO, 2011). It is now widespread (planted and naturalized) in tropical regions where it can be found along rivers and roadsides, in dry thickets or forest, from sea level up to 1800 m altitude and in areas where annual rainfall ranges from 400 mm to 1500 mm (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011; Sunarjono et al., 1991). In Hawaii, it is declared a weed (Duke, 1983).

Manila tamarind can stand a wide range of soils, temperatures (it is nevertheless frost sensitive) and dry periods ranging from 3 to up to 8 months (Ecocrop, 2011; FAO, 2011; Orwa et al., 2009). It prefers full sunlight but can withstand considerable shade (Orwa et al., 2009).

Environmental impact

Soil improver and afforestation

Manila tamarind is a N-fixing legume that can bear dry periods and almost all types of soil including saline ones: it can even grow in brackish water (Selvam, 2007). Manila tamarind may be used in afforestation (Orwa et al., 2009).

Living fences

Manila tamarind makes thorny living fence posts and hedges (FAO, 2011). Nonetheless, it does not appear to be totally goat-proof (Sunarjono et al., 1991). Manila tamarind also provides dense shade (Orwa et al., 2009).

Potential constraints

Manila tamarind is very thorny and may hurt people or animals like barbed-wire (Morton, 1962).

Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value

Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce), leaves and stems, fresh
Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce), leaves, fresh

Ruminants

Foliage

Manila tamarind can be used for lopping and browsing, as sole forage feed or as a supplement (Göhl, 1982).

In yearling female lambs, the DM intake of dry and fresh leaves ranged from 3.93 to 4.55 % body weight with a slightly higher intake and significantly higher digestibility for fresh leaves (Harish et al., 2003). Similar level of intake (4.55 kg DM/100 kg W) was registered with 6 months-old goats fed young leaves resulting in average daily gain of 50 g/day (Kundu et al., 1983).

Several studies have reported beneficial effects of Manila tamarind foliage used as supplement (Fall Touré et al., 1998; Kahindi et al., 2007; Paengkoum et al., 2010; Saha et al., 2008). In 6-month old East African goats consuming Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), an increase in supplementation level (from 7.5 to 22.5 g DM/kgW0.75) resulted in higher crude protein and DM intake and weight gain (from -8 to 43 g/day) but a higher supplementation level depressed intake and caused N losses: the recommended level for optimal production is in the range 40-50 % diet DM (22.5 g DM/kg W0.75) (Kahindi et al., 2007). In another study with crossbred goats, Manila tamarind foliage could substitute 45–50 % of crude protein from soybean meal without affecting productive performance, ruminal fermentation and microbial protein yield (Paengkoum et al., 2010).

Heuzé V., Tran G., Archimède H., 2011. Manila tamarind (Pithecellobium dulce). Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. [You must be registered and logged in to see this link.] Last updated on August 19, 2011, 13:19
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Sandeep Sunstar

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PostSubject: Re: Varjibkai (manila tamrid)   Mon Feb 17, 2014 5:26 pm

All About the Manila Tamarind

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Indians know this fruit as a “Manila tamarind” despite bearing no relation to the tamarind. The other name is “Madras thorn,” though it has no roots in Madras/Chennai, India.

Origin:
The camachile is native to Mexico, S. America and C. America. They came over to India, where it has several names: Varjibkai in kannada ,Korkalikka is the local Tamil name, also called “jungle jilebi.”

Availability of Camachile in India:
Though these plants are durable and grow like weeds (especially in India), they’re not a common commercial crop.

They bear fruit from March through May.

Where to find Manila Tamarind in India:

You have better luck coming to a tree by happenstance or coming across a vendor on the highway selling them by the bag from his farm behind him.

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Checking for Ripeness in Manila Tamarind:
Manila tamarinds are ripe when they go from green (their natural color on the tree) to a lovely pinkish gold color. Another indication of ripeness is that the fruit should be exposed: seeing the white flesh peeking out from the peeling skin isn’t a sign that the fruit’s gone bad—it’s a sign that it’s ready to eat.

Taste of Camachile:
The manila tamarind has a sweet, musky acidic taste, bearing resemblance to coconut flesh. The redder ones have a more desirable taste than the green ones as well.The texture is chewy, doughy and a bit grainy—it dissolves well on the tongue. Like the tamarind, each pod has a large seed surrounded by flesh. The white flesh in a camachile is the edible portion.

Nutritional Value in Manila Tamarind:
From Purdue University’s horticulture department, the nutritional value of a manila tamarind is, per 100g:

78 kcal
The composition of the fruit is:
77.8% water
3% protein
.4% fat
18.2% carb
1.2% fiber
.6% ash
13 mg calcium (1.3% RDI)
42mg phosphorous (4.2% RDI)
.5mg iron (2.7% RDI)
19mg sodium
222mg potassium (6.3% RDI)
15mg vitamin A
.24mg thiamin/B1 (16.6% RDI)
.10mg riboflavin/B2 (5.8% RDI)
.60mg niacin/B6 (3% RDI)
133mg vitamin C (221% RDI)

Health Benefits of Manila Tamarind:
-Manila tamarinds are exceptionally high in vitamin C, which bolsters your immune system, staves off strokes and reduces phlegm. It’s also full of cancer-fighting antioxidants
-Its high thiamine content also helps the body convert sugars into energy, which has a great impact on one’s mood: the greater the conversion, the better your body’s nervous system and stress level stabilization.
-In Eastern Nepal, it’s a medicinal plant used to combat fever
-The stem is used to treat dysentery
-The leaves help with intestinal disorders and possibly, tuberculosis
-Some researchers have found potential in the camachile’s antioxidants’ ability to fight off liver disease (hepatic oxidative dysfunction, to be specific).

How to open/cut:
Like the tamarind, camachiles are opened by peeling off the thin exterior and eating the flesh surrounding the large black seed. Unlike the tamarind, though, camachiles have a softer skin that requires peeling almost like a green bean.

Manila Tamarind Recipe Ideas:
-Manila tamarind juice is common, though de-seeding them is a laborious task.
-Make a paste for sauces, soups and stews by adding the pounded, sticky tamarind pulp with jaggery, water, salt, and a dash of chili powder.
-Make a stir fry by adding the paste above to sautéed tofu and vegetables.
-Turn into a candy or soak it
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PostSubject: Re: Varjibkai (manila tamrid)   Mon Feb 17, 2014 5:26 pm

Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.

Mimosaceae

Guamachil, Manila tamarind


Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.

Uses
Folk Medicine
Chemistry
Description
Germplasm
Distribution
Ecology
Cultivation
Harvesting
Yields and Economics
Energy
Biotic Factors
References

Uses

Often planted for living fence or thorny hedge, eventually nearly impenetrable, guamachil furnishes food, forage, and firewood, while fixing a little nitrogen. The pods, harvested in Mexico, Cuba, and Thailand, and customarily sold on roadside stands, contain a thick sweetish, but also acidic pulp, eaten raw or made into a drink similar to lemonade. Pods are devoured by livestock of all kinds; the leaves are browsed by horses, cattle, goats, and sheep; and hedge clippings are often gathered for animal feed. The plants withstand heavy browsing. The seeds contain a greenish oil (20%), which, after refining and bleaching, can be used for food or in making soap. The presscake, rich in protein (30%), may be used as stockfeed. Bark used as a fish poison in the Philippines (Perry, 1980). Known in the Philippines as "Kamachil", the wood, malodorous when cut, is used for boxes, crates, fuel, and wagon wheels. The gum exuding from the trunk can be used for mucilage, the tannin for tanning. The bark is harvested for tanning in Mexico. Tree seems promising for the cultivation of the lac insect. Flowers make good honey.

Folk Medicine

Reported to be abortifacient, anodyne, astringent, larvicidal, guamachil is a folk remedy for convulsions, dysentery, dyspepsia, earache, leprosy, peptic ulcers, sores, toothache, and venereal disease (Duke and Wain, 1981). The bark of P. avaremotem, the "avaremo-temo" from Brazil, is a folk cancer elixir (Hartwell, 1967–1971).

Chemistry

The fruit, more probably the aril, is reported to contain, per 100 g, 78 calories, 77.8% water, 3.0% protein, 0.4% fat, 18.2% total carbohydrate, 1.2% fiber, 0.6% ash, 13 mg Ca, 42 mg P, 0.5 mg Fe, 19 mg Na, 222 mg K, 15 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.24 mg thiamine, 0.10 mg riboflavin, 0.60 mg niacin, and 133 mg ascorbic acid. The essential amino acids in the aril are 143 mg/100 g valine, 178 lysine, 41 phenylalanine, and 26 tryptophan. An Indian aril (60% of the pod) contained 21.0 mg Ca/100 g, 40.0 Mg, 58.0 P, 1.1 Fe, 3.7 Na, 377 K, 0.6 Cu, and 109 S. As calcium pectate, pectin occurs as 0.96% of the sugars (mostly glucose) analysis of the aril (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976). The whole fruit, with husk and seeds (58% refuse) contains 33 calories, 32.7% moisture, 1.3 g protein, 0.2 g fat, 7.6 g total carbohydrate, 0.5 g fiber, 0.2 g ash, 5 mg Ca, 18 mg P, 0.2 mg Fe, 8 mg Na, 93 mg K, 5 mcg b-carotene equivalent, 0.10 mg thiamine, 0.4 mg riboflavin, 0.2 mg niacin, and 56 mg ascorbic acid (Leung et al, 1972). Per 100 g, the seed is reported to contain 13.5 g H2O, 17.7 g protein, 17.1 g fat, 41.4 g starch, 7.8 g fiber, 2.6 g ash. On alcoholic extraction, the seeds yield a saponin, a sterol glucoside, a flavone, and lecithin. The fatty acid composition of the seed is 24.3% saturated acids, 51.1% oleic, and 24.0% linoleic. Hager's Handbook (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979) reports 0.3% caprylic, 0.3% caprinic, 0.3% lauric, 0.8% myristic, 12.1% palmitic, 6.9% stearic, 3.1% arachidic, 13.1% behenic, 4.9% lignoceric, 32.2% oleic, and 26.0% linoleic acids in the fatty acids. Further listed is a saponin containing oleanolic- and echinocytic acids, with the sugar sequence xylose, arabinose, and glucose; also pithogenin, (C28H44O4), hederagenin and sodium nimbinate (which latter two are said to be antiarthritic and antiedemic in rats). Wax, hexacosanol, L-proline, L-leucine, L-valine, and asparagine, are also reported from the fruit, leucoro-binetinidin, leucofisetinidin, and melacacidin from the wood. After extraction of ca 20% edible oil, the seed cake, with 29.7% protein, can be used as animal feed. Bark contains up to 37% of a catechol type tannin. Bark also yields a yellow dye and 1.5% pectin. It is said to cause dermititis and eye inflammation. According to Roskoski et al (1980), studying Mexican material, the seeds contain 14.00% humidity, 2.66% ash, 25.69% CP, 8.12% EE, 22.16% CF, 26.97% carbohydrates with a 80.84% in vitro digestibility. The foliage contains 6.46% humidity, 15.34% ash, 17.17% CP, 6.83% EE, 30–95% CF, 23.25% carbohydrates, and 71.46% in vitro digestibility. For comparison, the Wealth of India reports (ZMB): 29.0% CP, 4.4% EE, 17.5% fiber, 43.6% NFE, 5.6% ash, 1.14% Ca, and 0.35% P. The manurial value of dry leaves is 4.91% N, 0.78% P2O5, 1.04% CaO, and 2.67% K2O. The antitumor compound, b-sitosterol (perhaps ubiquitous), and campesterol, stigmasterol, and a-spinasterol occur in the heartwood (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976).

Description

A large, nearly evergreen tree that grows up to 20 m or more in height, Manila tamarind has a broad crown (to 30 m across) and a short bole (to 1 m thick). At the base of each leaf is normally found a pair of short, sharp spines, though some specimens are spineless. (NAS, 1980a).

Germplasm

Reported from the American Center of Diversity, guamachil, or cvs thereof is reported to tolerate drought, heat, poor soil, salt, sand, and shade. (2n = 26).

Distribution

Native to Mexico through Central America to Colombia and Venezuela. Introduced in southern Florida, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and St. Croix. Widely planted and naturalized in tropical regions, including the Old World (Little and Wadsworth, 1964). Listed as a common weed in Hawaii.

Ecology

Ranging from Tropical Desert (along water courses) to Moist through Subtropical Desert to Moist Forest Life Zones, guamachil is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 1.4 to 22.0 dm (mean of 43 cases = 14.7), annual temperature of 18.0 to 27.9°C (mean of 37 cases = 25.4), and pH up to 8.3 (Duke, 1978, 1979). Occurs up to 1,800 m in Mexico and 1,500 m in Burundi. Suitable for most dry regions, it is drought resistant, in low rainfall areas developing an extensive root system. In Burundi it grows well at 800 m elevation and 600 mm, spread evenly year-round. In southern Florida rainfall averages 1,650 mm or more. It has great adaptability and grows on most soil types, including clay, oolitic limestone, and rather barren sands. It can also be found in wet sands that have a brackish water table (NAS, 1980a).

Cultivation

Reproduces easily by seeds or cuttings. For hedges, seeds may be sown in site, spaced 15 cm apart in two rows 30 cm apart.

Harvesting

Cut as needed for fuel, the tree has a fast rate of growth, coppices vigorously and can withstand "any amount of pruning, lopping, or browsing by animals." (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976).

Yields and Economics

In favorable soils and climates, the Manila tamarind may reach a height of 10 m in 5 or 6 years (NAS, 1980a). With no specific data available, I project that well established trees would produce forage somewhere between 6–20 MT/ha/yr, the 6 projected for Prosopis tamarugo and the 20 for Leucaena, by Felker (1981). Pod yields, according to my visual estimation, should approach those of Prosopis juliflora, a rather productive legume.

Energy

The reddish-brown wood is usually hard, heavy, and strong, though it is also brittle and rather difficult to cut. It is used (in India, Africa, and America) as a fuel, but smokes condiserably and is not best quality. Calorific value, 5,200–5,600 kcal per kg. In parts of India it is used as fuel for brick kilns (NAS, 1980a).

Biotic Factors

Normally pest damage is insignificant; can become affected by leaf spot diseases, Phyllosticta inga-dulcis and Colletotrichum sp., and a number of defoliating and boring insect pests. It is a favorite host of the thornbug. (NAS, 1980a). The nematode Meloidogyne is reported as a pest in Florida, the twig blight Phomopsis sp., the leaf spot Phyllosticta pithecolubis in Texas and Puerto Rico, Physalospora fusca and Physalospora rhodina in Florida, the wood rot Polyporus gilvus in Hawaii. Since several rhizobial cultures from guamachil failed to nodulate on several other taxa, this species was considered highly selective. Other tests with Baptisia, Crotalaria, and Dalea incurred nodulation (Allen and Allen, 1981). Browne (1968) lists: Fungi. Corticum salmonicolor, Phyllosticta ingae-dulcis. Coleoptera. Celosterna scabrator, Sternocera sternicornis. Hemiptera. Kerria lacca, Nipaecoccus vastator. Lepidoptera. Cryptophlebia illepida, Eucosma stereoma, Euproctis scintillans, Hypanartia hecabe, Macroplectra nararia.

References

Allen, O.N. and Allen, E.K. 1981. The Leguminosae. The University of Wisconsin Press.
Browne, F.G. 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantations trees. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
C.S.I.R. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research). 1948–1976. The wealth of India. 11 vols. New Delhi.
Duke, J.A. 1978. The quest for tolerant germplasm. p. 1–61. In: ASA Special Symposium 32, Crop tolerance to suboptimal land conditions. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, WI.
Duke, J.A. 1979. Ecosystematic data on economic plants. Quart. J. Crude Drug Res. 17(3–4):91–110.
Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols.
Felker, P. 1981. Uses of tree legumes in semiarid regions. Econ. Bot. 35(2):174–186.
Hartwell, J.L. 1967–1971. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30–34.
Little, E.L., Jr., and Wadsworth, F.H. 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Ag. Handbook 249, USDA, Washington, DC.
N.A.S. 1980a. Firewood crops. Shrub and tree species for energy production. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Perry, L.M. 1980. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Complete list of references for Duke, Handbook of Energy Crops
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PostSubject: Re: Varjibkai (manila tamrid)   Mon Feb 17, 2014 5:27 pm

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