Join date: 2012-06-01
|Subject: 50 Short Questions and Answers on Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Sat Aug 11, 2012 8:16 am|| |
1. What is referred to as Fascism in History? Mention two Fascist powers which existed during the Second World War.
Fascism was first propagated by Benito Mussolini. Under the Fascist system power of the state is vested in one person or a group of persons.
The two fascist powers were Germany and Italy.
2. Give the name of the book written by Hitler. Mention two ideas expressed by Hitler in the book.
Name: 'Mein Kampf Hair' Ideas:
(i) The book expressed Hitler's belief in the superiority of the Aryan race.
(ii) His hatred for Jews.
(iii) His desire to once more make Germany a powerful nation.
3. How did the US help Germany to overcome the 1923 financial crisis?
'German bonds' were sold to private American investors which helped Germany pay its reparations to Britain and France.
4. Name the four countries included in the Allied Powers in World War II.
England, France, Russia and USA were included in the Allied Powers.
5. Which countries were known as Axis Powers in World War II?
Germany, Italy and Japan were known as Axis Powers.
6. List the single most factor for the victory of the Allies in World War I.
The single most important factor for the victory of the Allies in World War I was the entry of USA in 1917. The Allies were strengthened by US entry.
7. What factors enabled the recast of Germany's Political System after World War I?
The factors which enabled the recast of German policy after World War I were the defeat which Imperial Germany suffered in World War I and the abdication of the German Emperor.
8. What was the German Parliament called?
The German Parliament was called Reichstag.
9. How were the deputies of the Reichstag appointed?
The deputies of the Reichstag were elected on the basis of universal adult franchise including women.
10. How did the Republic of Germany get its name?
The Republic of Germany was named Weimar after the name of the town where the constituent assembly had met and framed the new Constitution.
11. Why was the Weimar Republic not well received by the people of Germany?
The Weimar Republic was not well received by the people because many in Germany held the Republic responsible not only for the defeat in World War I but also for the humiliating terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
12. Who were called the 'November Criminals'?
Supporters of the Weimar Republic, mainly Socialists, Catholics and Democrats were mockingly called the 'November Criminals'.
13. Mention two most important clauses of the Treaty of Versailles.
The two important clauses of the Treaty of Versailles were:
(i) German area of the Rhine Valley was to be demilitarised.
(ii) Germany was to pay war reparation for loss and damages suffered by the Allies during the war.
14, when and between whom was the Treaty of Versailles signed?
Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919 between Germany and Britain, France and USA.
15. What does the term Great Economic Depression signify?
Great Economic Depression (1929-1934) signified the collapse of US economy which began with the crash of the Wall Street Exchange in 1929. It had repercussion all over the world and led to sustained large scale unemployment.
16. The Nazi Party was renamed after which organisation?
The Nazi Party was renamed after the National Socialist German Workers Party.
17. What was the significance of the Enabling Act?
The Enabling Act enabled Hitler to sideline the Parliament and rule by decree.
18. What were the provisions and significance of the Fire Decree (Feb. 28, 1933)?
Provisions of the Fire Decree enabled indefinite suspension of civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly that had been guaranteed by the Weimar Republic. It was significant because it enabled Hitler to acquire power and dismantle the democratic structure.
19. How did Hitler propose to bring about economic recovery in Germany?
Hitler proposed to bring about economic recovery by aiming at full production and full employment through state funded work creation programmes.
Secondly he sought to accumulate resources through expansion of territory.
20. Which concept of Hitler's ideology revealed his desire for an extended empire?
The geopolitical concept or concept of living space revealed his desire for an extended empire.
21. What was the Nazi argument for their imperialist ambitions?
The Nazi argument for their imperialist ambitions was, the strongest race would survive and the weak perish. To retain purity of the Aryan race they had to dominate the world.
22. Who were the supporters of the Nazi ideology?
Nazi ideas found support in the army and the class of big landlords. They received the full backing of the industrialists who were alarmed at the growth of the socialist and communist parties.
23. Give two steps taken by the Weimar Republic in 1923, to acquire political stability in Germany.
To acquire political stability in Germany, the Weimar Republic:
(i) Introduced a new currency called Rentenmark. This considerably strengthened Germany's monetary system.
(ii) A new method was negotiated between Germany and the Allies for payment of separation dues. Thereby the French Army withdrew from the Ruhr region.
24. What is meant by the term appeasement? Who adopted it towards whom?
Appeasement means a policy of conciliating an aggressive power at the expense of some other country.
The Western powers namely Britain and France adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany and Italy.
25. What was the reason behind the Western powers following a policy of appeasement towards Germany in the years before World War II?
The only reason behind the appeasement policy of the western powers towards Germany was to ensure that German aggression remained directed against Communist Russia.
26. What marked the beginning of World War II?
The invasion of Poland by German}' on September 1, 1933 marked the beginning of the World War II.
27. Who were the signatories of the 1940 Tripartite Pact?
Germany, Italy and Japan were the signatories of the 1940 Tripartite Pact.
28. Why Hitler's attack on Soviet Union is in 1941 regarded 'a historic blunder'?
Hitler's attack on Soviet Union in 1941 is regarded as a historic blunder because henceforth German armies had to simultaneously fight on two fronts. While Germans were fighting the aerial bombings of the British on the western front, the eastern front remained exposed to the powerful Soviet armies.
29. Name some countries which became victims of Hitler's aggressive policy.
Some countries which became victims of Hitler's aggressive policy were-Poland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Belgium, France, North Africa and Russia.
30. What was the immediate cause for American entry in World War 11?
Both US and Japan were competing for domination in the Pacific. The immediate cause for American entry in World War II was the sudden bombing by Japan on the American naval base at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii, destroying American ships and aircraiXs.
31. Mention the msyor events of 1941 that turned the war into a global war.
The German invasion of Soviet Union, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour and United States entry in the war turned the war into a truly global war.
32. Which country used atomic bombs during World War II?
USA used atomic bombs during World War II against Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
33. What event brought the end of World War II?
Hitler's defeat and the US bombing of Hiroshima in Japan brought the end of World War II in 1945.
34. Hitler's ideas on racialism were based on which thinkers?
Hitler's ideas on racialism borrowed heavily from thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer.
35. Who according to Hitler topped the racial hierarchy? Who formed the lowest rung of the hierarchy?
The Nordic German Aryans were at the top while the Jews were located at the lowest rung of the racial hierarchy.
36. Who according to the Nazis were 'desirables'?
Pure and healthy Nordic Aryans alone were considered 'desirables' by the Nazis.
37. Who were regarded and treated as 'undesirables' during the Nazi regime?
Jews, many Gypsies, blacks living in Nazi Germany, Poles and Russian civilians belonging to German occupied territory, were treated as 'undesirables'. Even Germans who were seen as impure or abnormal were classed as 'undesirables'.
38. How did the common people react to Nazi behaviour and propaganda of Jews?
Many common people reacted with anger and hatred towards Jews, others remained passive onlookers scared to protest, many others protested braving even death.
39. What does the term 'Holocaust' refer to?
The term Holocaust refers to the atrocities and sufferings endured by Jews during Nazi killing operations.
40. What was Hitler's World View?
As per Hitler's World View there was no equality between people, only racial hierarchy.
41. (a) What does the term 'Genocidial War' refer to?
(b) List the three stages leading to the extermination of Jews.
(a) The term Genocidial War refers to the mass murder of selected groups of innocent civilians in Europe by Germany, during World War II.
(b) The three stages in the extermination of Jews were exclusion, ghettoisation and annihilation.
42. For what was Auschwitz notorious during the Nazi period?
Auschwitz was notorious for mass scale gassing chambers used for mass human killing.
43. What did Nazis fear most after the fall and death of Hitler?
Nazis feared revenge from the Allies after the fall and death of Hitler.
44. Where and when did Hitler and his propaganda minister Goebbels commit suicide?
Hitler and Goebbels committed suicide collectively in the Berlin bunker in April, 1945.
45. (i) Why did Germany attack Poland? (ii) What were its consequences?
(i) Poland's refusal to return Danzig, and a rail road corridor through Poland linking East Prussia with the rest of Germany led Germany to attack Poland. (September 1, 1939). (ii) This led Britain and France to deliver a joint ultimatum to Germany demanding a cessation of hostilities and immediate withdrawal of German forces from Poland. When Germany refused to comply both the countries declared war on Germany, leading to the start of the Second World War.
46. Why did Germany want Sudentenland?
Germany wanted Sudentenland because:
(i) It had a substantial German population.
(ii) This area also formed l/5th of Czechoslovakia.
(iii) Had the largest ammunition factories in the world.
47. When did the Second World War end in Europe?
After the Soviet armies entered Berlin and Hitler committed suicide, Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945. All hostilities ended on May 9, 1945.
48. Why was the International Military Tribunal set up in Nuremberg and for what did it prosecute the Nazi's?
Germany's conduct during the war raised serious moral and ethical questions and invited worldwide condemnation. Therefore, the International Military Tribunal was set up in Nuremberg to prosecute Nazi War Criminals.
The Tribunal prosecuted the Nazi's for Crimes against Peace, for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity.
49. How did the Jews feel in Nazi Germany?
So thorough was Nazi propaganda that many Jews started believing in the Nazi stereotypes about themselves. The images haunted them. Jews died many deaths even before they reached the gas chambers. Even then many a Jews lived on to tell their story.
50. The retribution meted out to the Nazis after World War fl was far short in extent of their crimes. Why?
The retribution of the Nazis was far short of the brutality and extent of their crimes because the Allies did not want to be harsh on defeated Germany as they had been after World War I. They came to feel the rise of Nazi Germany could be partly traced back to the German experience at the end of World War I.